Paano Bumoto

Election Hotspot/Election Watchlist Areas (EWAs)

When an area called an election hotspot?

  1. The area has a history of intense partisan political rivalry.
  2. There have been politically-motivated incidents and election-related crimes in the past.
    • Politically-motivated incidents - those committed before the campaign period starts.
    • Election-related crimes - happen during the election period
  3. Presence of threat groups such as Abu Sayyaf Group, Bangsamoro Islamic Freedom Fighters, and private army groups of influential politicians.
  4. Proliferation of firearms in a certain town, municipality or city.


In identifying areas as election hotspots, the Philippine National Police (PNP) is guided by three categories:

  • Category 1 – If the incidents in an area are purely political.
  • Category 2 – Towns and cities where there are threat groups.
  • Category 3 – Combination of categories 1 and 2.